JDK源代码之ArrayList

ArrayList的特性

实现的接口

ArrayList的类声明如下:

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public class ArrayList<E> extends AbstractList<E>
implements List<E>, RandomAccess, Cloneable, java.io.Serializable

轻轻一撇,我们便是可以看出,ArrayList继承自抽象泛型类AbstractList<>,它实现了List接口(Collection集合的List),也拥有RandomAccess/Cloneable/Serializable三个“标注”接口。

同步机制

与Vector相比,ArrayList放弃了同步机制。如果我想要一个支持同步的ArrayList,可以使用Collections工具类中的synchronizedList方法构建一个List:

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List list = Collections.synchronizedList(new ArrayList(...));

时间空间复杂度

ArrayList的get/size/isEmpty等方法的复杂度均为常数,add方法的复杂度为O(n),其余的都是线性复杂度。

ArrayList字段

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private static final long serialVersionUID = 8683452581122892189L;

/**
* Default initial capacity.
* ArrayList的默认容量。插满会自动扩充。
*/
private static final int DEFAULT_CAPACITY = 10;

/**
* Shared empty array instance used for empty instances.
* 保存ArrayList元素的空数组
*/
private static final Object[] EMPTY_ELEMENTDATA = {};

/**
* The array buffer into which the elements of the ArrayList are stored.
* The capacity of the ArrayList is the length of this array buffer. Any
* empty ArrayList with elementData == EMPTY_ELEMENTDATA will be expanded to
* DEFAULT_CAPACITY when the first element is added.
*/
transient Object[] elementData; // non-private to simplify nested class access

/**
* The size of the ArrayList (the number of elements it contains).
* ArrayList的实际大小(已经插入了多少数据)
*
* @serial
*/
private int size;

ArrayList方法分析

从上往下分析

trimToSize(缩减容量)

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public void trimToSize() {
modCount++;
if (size < elementData.length) {
elementData = Arrays.copyOf(elementData, size);
}
}

该方法将ArrayList容量缩减为实际的容量,也就是说数组中没有多余的空位。值得注意的是,该方法里修改了抽象类AbstractList里的modCount,它的作用是监控外界对数组做出的修改,防止错误的并行发生,可以看作是一个信号量之类的东西。

ensureCapacity(扩大容量)

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public void ensureCapacity(int minCapacity) {
int minExpand = (elementData != EMPTY_ELEMENTDATA)
? 0
: DEFAULT_CAPACITY;

if (minCapacity > minExpand) {
ensureExplicitCapacity(minCapacity);
}
}

该方法将扩张ArrayList的容量capacity。如果ArrayList仍旧为空(elementData != EMPTY_ELEMENTDATA),默认需要扩张的最少数量为10个(DEFAULT_CAPACITY),如果已经不为空则默认不需要扩张。之后再和参数相比,如果参数中的数字大,就调用ensureExplicitCapacity扩张。

ensureExplicitCapacity

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private void ensureExplicitCapacity(int minCapacity) {
modCount++;

if (minCapacity - elementData.length > 0)
grow(minCapacity);
}

该方法修改modCount来检测不合法并行,并进一步调用grow来扩张ArrayList容量。

grow(确定新容量并扩大数组)

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private void grow(int minCapacity) {
int oldCapacity = elementData.length;
int newCapacity = oldCapacity + (oldCapacity >> 1);
if (newCapacity - minCapacity < 0)
newCapacity = minCapacity;
if (newCapacity - MAX_ARRAY_SIZE > 0)
newCapacity = hugeCapacity(minCapacity);
// minCapacity is usually close to size, so this is a win:
elementData = Arrays.copyOf(elementData, newCapacity);
}

该方法中,先尝试将旧容量扩大50%(oldCapacity + (oldCapacity >> 1),如果不够再设为参数指定的大小,如果新容量超过最大值再调用hugeCapacity来得到合适的大小;最终调用copyOf方法创建一个新容量的ArrayList。

hugeCapacity(计算合适的容量)

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private static int hugeCapacity(int minCapacity) {
if (minCapacity < 0) // overflow
throw new OutOfMemoryError();
return (minCapacity > MAX_ARRAY_SIZE) ?
Integer.MAX_VALUE :
MAX_ARRAY_SIZE;
}

该方法返回一个比MAX_ARRAY_SIZE稍微大一点的MAX_VALUE

contains(是否包含某对象)

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public boolean contains(Object o) {
return indexOf(o) >= 0;
}

该方法调用indexOf查找目标对象的下标,下标大于0则说明ArrayList包含该对象。

indexOf(查找下标)

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public int indexOf(Object o) {
if (o == null) {
for (int i = 0; i < size; i++)
if (elementData[i]==null)
return i;
} else {
for (int i = 0; i < size; i++)
if (o.equals(elementData[i]))
return i;
}
return -1;
}

如果目标对象为null,就从头往尾去找出第一个null;否则调用对象的equals方法去判断数组中哪个对象equals目标对象。(值得注意的是这里用了equals而不是用==)

lastIndexOf(从尾往头找下标)

原理与indexOf相似,只不过方向调转。

clone(克隆出另一个ArrayList)

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public Object clone() {
try {
ArrayList<?> v = (ArrayList<?>) super.clone();
v.elementData = Arrays.copyOf(elementData, size);
v.modCount = 0;
return v;
} catch (CloneNotSupportedException e) {
// this shouldn't happen, since we are Cloneable
throw new InternalError(e);
}
}

先克隆父类,再克隆ArrayList内部的数组,并将克隆ArrayList的modCount重置为0。

toArray(T[] a)(将ArrayList复制到目标数组T[])

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public <T> T[] toArray(T[] a) {
if (a.length < size)
// Make a new array of a's runtime type, but my contents:
return (T[]) Arrays.copyOf(elementData, size, a.getClass());
System.arraycopy(elementData, 0, a, 0, size);
if (a.length > size)
a[size] = null;
return a;
}

针对目标数组的大小,分别调用Arrays.copyOf方法或是System.arraycopy进行复制,前者创建了一个更大的数组以便容纳ArrayList中较多的数据,后者则将ArrayList中的数据复制到目标数组中。

get(获取相应下标的对象)

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public E get(int index) {
rangeCheck(index);
return elementData(index);
}

该方法先调用rangeCheck方法检查是否越界,再调用elementData方法去取到目标对象。

set(更新某个下标的对象并返回旧对象)

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public E set(int index, E element) {
rangeCheck(index);

E oldValue = elementData(index);
elementData[index] = element;
return oldValue;
}

add(往数组尾部插入一个新对象)

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public boolean add(E e) {
ensureCapacityInternal(size + 1); // Increments modCount!!
elementData[size++] = e;
return true;
}

该方法先调用ensureCapacityInternal方法来扩大ArrayList容量,保证内部数组有足够的空间,然后再插入数据。

ensureCapacityInternal(扩大ArrayList容量)

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private void ensureCapacityInternal(int minCapacity) {
if (elementData == EMPTY_ELEMENTDATA) {
minCapacity = Math.max(DEFAULT_CAPACITY, minCapacity);
}

ensureExplicitCapacity(minCapacity);
}

remove(移除某个下标对应的对象)

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public E remove(int index) {
rangeCheck(index);

modCount++;
E oldValue = elementData(index);

int numMoved = size - index - 1;
if (numMoved > 0)
System.arraycopy(elementData, index+1, elementData, index,
numMoved);
elementData[--size] = null; // clear to let GC do its work

return oldValue;
}

该方法在移除某个对象后,会将该对象后面的所有对象全部往前移动一个位置,复杂度稍高(难以想象移除一百亿个数据中第100个带来的后果,需要移动近一百亿个数据!)。

clear(清空ArrayList)

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public void clear() {
modCount++;

// clear to let GC do its work
for (int i = 0; i < size; i++)
elementData[i] = null;

size = 0;
}

将数组内所有变量置为null,对象失去引用,可能会被GC回收。值得注意的是,虽然清空,但是ArrayList的容量不变,数组大小不变,数组还在,只是数组内的数据失去了意义(身体还在,但已经失去了灵魂)。

addAll(int index, Collection<? extends E> c)(将另一个集合中的数据插入到特定的位置)

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public boolean addAll(int index, Collection<? extends E> c) {
rangeCheckForAdd(index);

Object[] a = c.toArray();
int numNew = a.length;
ensureCapacityInternal(size + numNew); // Increments modCount

int numMoved = size - index;
if (numMoved > 0)
System.arraycopy(elementData, index, elementData, index + numNew,
numMoved);

System.arraycopy(a, 0, elementData, index, numNew);
size += numNew;
return numNew != 0;
}

在该方法中,先将原先数据往后移动,空出位置,在将新数据插入到空位之中,复杂度也是稍高。

removeRange(将范围内的数据清空)

removeAll(Collection<?> c)(将指定的数据集合从ArrayList中删除)

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public boolean removeAll(Collection<?> c) {
Objects.requireNonNull(c);
return batchRemove(c, false);
}

该方法先检查参数中的数据集合是否为空,如果为空就抛出异常;而后调用batchRemove来批量删除该数据集合。

batchRemove(保留或删除特定数据集合)

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private boolean batchRemove(Collection<?> c, boolean complement) {
final Object[] elementData = this.elementData;
int r = 0, w = 0;
boolean modified = false;
try {
for (; r < size; r++)
if (c.contains(elementData[r]) == complement)
elementData[w++] = elementData[r];
} finally {
// Preserve behavioral compatibility with AbstractCollection,
// even if c.contains() throws.
if (r != size) {
System.arraycopy(elementData, r,
elementData, w,
size - r);
w += size - r;
}
if (w != size) {
// clear to let GC do its work
for (int i = w; i < size; i++)
elementData[i] = null;
modCount += size - w;
size = w;
modified = true;
}
}
return modified;
}

这个方法很巧妙,从一个大的数据集里删除小数据集,遍历大的数据集,如果某个数据符合条件就将它保存在数组前面,最后再清空无效的数据。这里我有个疑问:这个方法里的局部变量elementData就是ArrayList变量elementData么?似乎它们2个都是某个数组对象的引用,它们只是变量,这样一来倒是可以说通,那么,为什么要加关键字final呢?

writeObject(将一个ArrayList实例序列化到一个流中)

readObject(从一个流中反序列化出一个ArrayList实例)

listIterator(返回一个list的iterator)

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public ListIterator<E> listIterator(int index) {
if (index < 0 || index > size)
throw new IndexOutOfBoundsException("Index: "+index);
return new ListItr(index);
}

iterator(返回一个iterator)

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public Iterator<E> iterator() {
return new Itr();
}

有个疑问,listIterator和iterator有什么区别?

Itr内部类(类似C++中的iterator)

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private class Itr implements Iterator<E> {
int cursor; // index of next element to return
int lastRet = -1; // index of last element returned; -1 if no such
int expectedModCount = modCount;

public boolean hasNext() {
return cursor != size;
}

@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
public E next() {
checkForComodification();
int i = cursor;
if (i >= size)
throw new NoSuchElementException();
Object[] elementData = ArrayList.this.elementData;
if (i >= elementData.length)
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
cursor = i + 1;
return (E) elementData[lastRet = i];
}

public void remove() {
if (lastRet < 0)
throw new IllegalStateException();
checkForComodification();

try {
ArrayList.this.remove(lastRet);
cursor = lastRet;
lastRet = -1;
expectedModCount = modCount;
} catch (IndexOutOfBoundsException ex) {
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}
}

@Override
@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
public void forEachRemaining(Consumer<? super E> consumer) {
Objects.requireNonNull(consumer);
final int size = ArrayList.this.size;
int i = cursor;
if (i >= size) {
return;
}
final Object[] elementData = ArrayList.this.elementData;
if (i >= elementData.length) {
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}
while (i != size && modCount == expectedModCount) {
consumer.accept((E) elementData[i++]);
}
// update once at end of iteration to reduce heap write traffic
cursor = i;
lastRet = i - 1;
checkForComodification();
}

final void checkForComodification() {
if (modCount != expectedModCount)
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}
}

该类实现了Iterator泛型接口,只有5个方法。
该内部类里的hasNext/next/remove方法都很好理解,但forEachRemaining方法是干什么用的呢?里边还有个Consumer类,是消费者还是什么意思?此处需深入研究。

ListItr内部类

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private class ListItr extends Itr implements ListIterator<E> {
ListItr(int index) {
super();
cursor = index;
}

public boolean hasPrevious() {
return cursor != 0;
}

public int nextIndex() {
return cursor;
}

public int previousIndex() {
return cursor - 1;
}

@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
public E previous() {
checkForComodification();
int i = cursor - 1;
if (i < 0)
throw new NoSuchElementException();
Object[] elementData = ArrayList.this.elementData;
if (i >= elementData.length)
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
cursor = i;
return (E) elementData[lastRet = i];
}

public void set(E e) {
if (lastRet < 0)
throw new IllegalStateException();
checkForComodification();

try {
ArrayList.this.set(lastRet, e);
} catch (IndexOutOfBoundsException ex) {
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}
}

public void add(E e) {
checkForComodification();

try {
int i = cursor;
ArrayList.this.add(i, e);
cursor = i + 1;
lastRet = -1;
expectedModCount = modCount;
} catch (IndexOutOfBoundsException ex) {
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}
}
}

它继承了Itr,并且实现了ListIterator接口。

由此看来,listIterator和iterator的区别是,前者是双向的,而后者只是单向的。

SubList内部类

SubList并不像SubString那样返回一段新的子串;SubList的内容依旧在操作ArrayList的内容,只不过它们的范围不同(神奇的是SubList内部实现和ArrayList差不多,也有listIterator)

forEach

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public void forEach(Consumer<? super E> action) {
Objects.requireNonNull(action);
final int expectedModCount = modCount;
@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
final E[] elementData = (E[]) this.elementData;
final int size = this.size;
for (int i=0; modCount == expectedModCount && i < size; i++) {
action.accept(elementData[i]);
}
if (modCount != expectedModCount) {
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}
}

该方法和foreach(int a : ArrayList array)有什么关联?
该方法待深入研究。

spliterator

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public Spliterator<E> spliterator() {
return new ArrayListSpliterator<>(this, 0, -1, 0);
}

该方法待深入研究,Spliterator到底是什么东西?

ArrayListSpliterator静态内部类

该类待深入研究。

removeIf(Predicate<? super E> filter)

该方法待深入研究。

replaceAll(UnaryOperator operator)

该方法待深入研究。

sort(Comparator<? super E> c)(给ArrayList排序)

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@Override
@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
public void sort(Comparator<? super E> c) {
final int expectedModCount = modCount;
Arrays.sort((E[]) elementData, 0, size, c);
if (modCount != expectedModCount) {
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}
modCount++;
}

该方法会调用Arrays.sort进行排序。

疑问:为什么不能根据返回类型的不同来重载?

至今理解:重载和重写不同,重载是编译时进行,重写是运行时进行。在编译时,编译器根据一种叫“方法签名”的东西来判断两个方法是否相同,而方法签名里并不包括返回类型,所以两个只有返回类型不同的方法在编译器眼里,其实是同一个方法,自然会报错方法重复,所以不能根据返回类型来重载。在运行时,JVM能够根据返回类型来判断两个方法是否相同,所以如果我们耍点小心机的话,可以让JVM正常运行两个只有返回类型不同的方法而不引起冲突。

ArrayList的全部代码

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/*
* Copyright (c) 1997, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
* ORACLE PROPRIETARY/CONFIDENTIAL. Use is subject to license terms.
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*/

package java.util;

import java.util.function.Consumer;
import java.util.function.Predicate;
import java.util.function.UnaryOperator;

/**
* Resizable-array implementation of the <tt>List</tt> interface. Implements
* all optional list operations, and permits all elements, including
* <tt>null</tt>. In addition to implementing the <tt>List</tt> interface,
* this class provides methods to manipulate the size of the array that is
* used internally to store the list. (This class is roughly equivalent to
* <tt>Vector</tt>, except that it is unsynchronized.)
*
* <p>The <tt>size</tt>, <tt>isEmpty</tt>, <tt>get</tt>, <tt>set</tt>,
* <tt>iterator</tt>, and <tt>listIterator</tt> operations run in constant
* time. The <tt>add</tt> operation runs in <i>amortized constant time</i>,
* that is, adding n elements requires O(n) time. All of the other operations
* run in linear time (roughly speaking). The constant factor is low compared
* to that for the <tt>LinkedList</tt> implementation.
*
* <p>Each <tt>ArrayList</tt> instance has a <i>capacity</i>. The capacity is
* the size of the array used to store the elements in the list. It is always
* at least as large as the list size. As elements are added to an ArrayList,
* its capacity grows automatically. The details of the growth policy are not
* specified beyond the fact that adding an element has constant amortized
* time cost.
*
* <p>An application can increase the capacity of an <tt>ArrayList</tt> instance
* before adding a large number of elements using the <tt>ensureCapacity</tt>
* operation. This may reduce the amount of incremental reallocation.
*
* <p><strong>Note that this implementation is not synchronized.</strong>
* If multiple threads access an <tt>ArrayList</tt> instance concurrently,
* and at least one of the threads modifies the list structurally, it
* <i>must</i> be synchronized externally. (A structural modification is
* any operation that adds or deletes one or more elements, or explicitly
* resizes the backing array; merely setting the value of an element is not
* a structural modification.) This is typically accomplished by
* synchronizing on some object that naturally encapsulates the list.
*
* If no such object exists, the list should be "wrapped" using the
* {@link Collections#synchronizedList Collections.synchronizedList}
* method. This is best done at creation time, to prevent accidental
* unsynchronized access to the list:<pre>
* List list = Collections.synchronizedList(new ArrayList(...));</pre>
*
* <p><a name="fail-fast">
* The iterators returned by this class's {@link #iterator() iterator} and
* {@link #listIterator(int) listIterator} methods are <em>fail-fast</em>:</a>
* if the list is structurally modified at any time after the iterator is
* created, in any way except through the iterator's own
* {@link ListIterator#remove() remove} or
* {@link ListIterator#add(Object) add} methods, the iterator will throw a
* {@link ConcurrentModificationException}. Thus, in the face of
* concurrent modification, the iterator fails quickly and cleanly, rather
* than risking arbitrary, non-deterministic behavior at an undetermined
* time in the future.
*
* <p>Note that the fail-fast behavior of an iterator cannot be guaranteed
* as it is, generally speaking, impossible to make any hard guarantees in the
* presence of unsynchronized concurrent modification. Fail-fast iterators
* throw {@code ConcurrentModificationException} on a best-effort basis.
* Therefore, it would be wrong to write a program that depended on this
* exception for its correctness: <i>the fail-fast behavior of iterators
* should be used only to detect bugs.</i>
*
* <p>This class is a member of the
* <a href="{@docRoot}/../technotes/guides/collections/index.html">
* Java Collections Framework</a>.
*
* @author Josh Bloch
* @author Neal Gafter
* @see Collection
* @see List
* @see LinkedList
* @see Vector
* @since 1.2
*/

public class ArrayList<E> extends AbstractList<E>
implements List<E>, RandomAccess, Cloneable, java.io.Serializable
{
private static final long serialVersionUID = 8683452581122892189L;

/**
* Default initial capacity.
*/
private static final int DEFAULT_CAPACITY = 10;

/**
* Shared empty array instance used for empty instances.
*/
private static final Object[] EMPTY_ELEMENTDATA = {};

/**
* The array buffer into which the elements of the ArrayList are stored.
* The capacity of the ArrayList is the length of this array buffer. Any
* empty ArrayList with elementData == EMPTY_ELEMENTDATA will be expanded to
* DEFAULT_CAPACITY when the first element is added.
*/
transient Object[] elementData; // non-private to simplify nested class access

/**
* The size of the ArrayList (the number of elements it contains).
*
* @serial
*/
private int size;

/**
* Constructs an empty list with the specified initial capacity.
*
* @param initialCapacity the initial capacity of the list
* @throws IllegalArgumentException if the specified initial capacity
* is negative
*/
public ArrayList(int initialCapacity) {
super();
if (initialCapacity < 0)
throw new IllegalArgumentException("Illegal Capacity: "+
initialCapacity);
this.elementData = new Object[initialCapacity];
}

/**
* Constructs an empty list with an initial capacity of ten.
*/
public ArrayList() {
super();
this.elementData = EMPTY_ELEMENTDATA;
}

/**
* Constructs a list containing the elements of the specified
* collection, in the order they are returned by the collection's
* iterator.
*
* @param c the collection whose elements are to be placed into this list
* @throws NullPointerException if the specified collection is null
*/
public ArrayList(Collection<? extends E> c) {
elementData = c.toArray();
size = elementData.length;
// c.toArray might (incorrectly) not return Object[] (see 6260652)
if (elementData.getClass() != Object[].class)
elementData = Arrays.copyOf(elementData, size, Object[].class);
}

/**
* Trims the capacity of this <tt>ArrayList</tt> instance to be the
* list's current size. An application can use this operation to minimize
* the storage of an <tt>ArrayList</tt> instance.
*/
public void trimToSize() {
modCount++;
if (size < elementData.length) {
elementData = Arrays.copyOf(elementData, size);
}
}

/**
* Increases the capacity of this <tt>ArrayList</tt> instance, if
* necessary, to ensure that it can hold at least the number of elements
* specified by the minimum capacity argument.
*
* @param minCapacity the desired minimum capacity
*/
public void ensureCapacity(int minCapacity) {
int minExpand = (elementData != EMPTY_ELEMENTDATA)
// any size if real element table
? 0
// larger than default for empty table. It's already supposed to be
// at default size.
: DEFAULT_CAPACITY;

if (minCapacity > minExpand) {
ensureExplicitCapacity(minCapacity);
}
}

private void ensureCapacityInternal(int minCapacity) {
if (elementData == EMPTY_ELEMENTDATA) {
minCapacity = Math.max(DEFAULT_CAPACITY, minCapacity);
}

ensureExplicitCapacity(minCapacity);
}

private void ensureExplicitCapacity(int minCapacity) {
modCount++;

// overflow-conscious code
if (minCapacity - elementData.length > 0)
grow(minCapacity);
}

/**
* The maximum size of array to allocate.
* Some VMs reserve some header words in an array.
* Attempts to allocate larger arrays may result in
* OutOfMemoryError: Requested array size exceeds VM limit
*/
private static final int MAX_ARRAY_SIZE = Integer.MAX_VALUE - 8;

/**
* Increases the capacity to ensure that it can hold at least the
* number of elements specified by the minimum capacity argument.
*
* @param minCapacity the desired minimum capacity
*/
private void grow(int minCapacity) {
// overflow-conscious code
int oldCapacity = elementData.length;
int newCapacity = oldCapacity + (oldCapacity >> 1);
if (newCapacity - minCapacity < 0)
newCapacity = minCapacity;
if (newCapacity - MAX_ARRAY_SIZE > 0)
newCapacity = hugeCapacity(minCapacity);
// minCapacity is usually close to size, so this is a win:
elementData = Arrays.copyOf(elementData, newCapacity);
}

private static int hugeCapacity(int minCapacity) {
if (minCapacity < 0) // overflow
throw new OutOfMemoryError();
return (minCapacity > MAX_ARRAY_SIZE) ?
Integer.MAX_VALUE :
MAX_ARRAY_SIZE;
}

/**
* Returns the number of elements in this list.
*
* @return the number of elements in this list
*/
public int size() {
return size;
}

/**
* Returns <tt>true</tt> if this list contains no elements.
*
* @return <tt>true</tt> if this list contains no elements
*/
public boolean isEmpty() {
return size == 0;
}

/**
* Returns <tt>true</tt> if this list contains the specified element.
* More formally, returns <tt>true</tt> if and only if this list contains
* at least one element <tt>e</tt> such that
* <tt>(o==null&nbsp;?&nbsp;e==null&nbsp;:&nbsp;o.equals(e))</tt>.
*
* @param o element whose presence in this list is to be tested
* @return <tt>true</tt> if this list contains the specified element
*/
public boolean contains(Object o) {
return indexOf(o) >= 0;
}

/**
* Returns the index of the first occurrence of the specified element
* in this list, or -1 if this list does not contain the element.
* More formally, returns the lowest index <tt>i</tt> such that
* <tt>(o==null&nbsp;?&nbsp;get(i)==null&nbsp;:&nbsp;o.equals(get(i)))</tt>,
* or -1 if there is no such index.
*/
public int indexOf(Object o) {
if (o == null) {
for (int i = 0; i < size; i++)
if (elementData[i]==null)
return i;
} else {
for (int i = 0; i < size; i++)
if (o.equals(elementData[i]))
return i;
}
return -1;
}

/**
* Returns the index of the last occurrence of the specified element
* in this list, or -1 if this list does not contain the element.
* More formally, returns the highest index <tt>i</tt> such that
* <tt>(o==null&nbsp;?&nbsp;get(i)==null&nbsp;:&nbsp;o.equals(get(i)))</tt>,
* or -1 if there is no such index.
*/
public int lastIndexOf(Object o) {
if (o == null) {
for (int i = size-1; i >= 0; i--)
if (elementData[i]==null)
return i;
} else {
for (int i = size-1; i >= 0; i--)
if (o.equals(elementData[i]))
return i;
}
return -1;
}

/**
* Returns a shallow copy of this <tt>ArrayList</tt> instance. (The
* elements themselves are not copied.)
*
* @return a clone of this <tt>ArrayList</tt> instance
*/
public Object clone() {
try {
ArrayList<?> v = (ArrayList<?>) super.clone();
v.elementData = Arrays.copyOf(elementData, size);
v.modCount = 0;
return v;
} catch (CloneNotSupportedException e) {
// this shouldn't happen, since we are Cloneable
throw new InternalError(e);
}
}

/**
* Returns an array containing all of the elements in this list
* in proper sequence (from first to last element).
*
* <p>The returned array will be "safe" in that no references to it are
* maintained by this list. (In other words, this method must allocate
* a new array). The caller is thus free to modify the returned array.
*
* <p>This method acts as bridge between array-based and collection-based
* APIs.
*
* @return an array containing all of the elements in this list in
* proper sequence
*/
public Object[] toArray() {
return Arrays.copyOf(elementData, size);
}

/**
* Returns an array containing all of the elements in this list in proper
* sequence (from first to last element); the runtime type of the returned
* array is that of the specified array. If the list fits in the
* specified array, it is returned therein. Otherwise, a new array is
* allocated with the runtime type of the specified array and the size of
* this list.
*
* <p>If the list fits in the specified array with room to spare
* (i.e., the array has more elements than the list), the element in
* the array immediately following the end of the collection is set to
* <tt>null</tt>. (This is useful in determining the length of the
* list <i>only</i> if the caller knows that the list does not contain
* any null elements.)
*
* @param a the array into which the elements of the list are to
* be stored, if it is big enough; otherwise, a new array of the
* same runtime type is allocated for this purpose.
* @return an array containing the elements of the list
* @throws ArrayStoreException if the runtime type of the specified array
* is not a supertype of the runtime type of every element in
* this list
* @throws NullPointerException if the specified array is null
*/
@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
public <T> T[] toArray(T[] a) {
if (a.length < size)
// Make a new array of a's runtime type, but my contents:
return (T[]) Arrays.copyOf(elementData, size, a.getClass());
System.arraycopy(elementData, 0, a, 0, size);
if (a.length > size)
a[size] = null;
return a;
}

// Positional Access Operations

@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
E elementData(int index) {
return (E) elementData[index];
}

/**
* Returns the element at the specified position in this list.
*
* @param index index of the element to return
* @return the element at the specified position in this list
* @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException {@inheritDoc}
*/
public E get(int index) {
rangeCheck(index);

return elementData(index);
}

/**
* Replaces the element at the specified position in this list with
* the specified element.
*
* @param index index of the element to replace
* @param element element to be stored at the specified position
* @return the element previously at the specified position
* @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException {@inheritDoc}
*/
public E set(int index, E element) {
rangeCheck(index);

E oldValue = elementData(index);
elementData[index] = element;
return oldValue;
}

/**
* Appends the specified element to the end of this list.
*
* @param e element to be appended to this list
* @return <tt>true</tt> (as specified by {@link Collection#add})
*/
public boolean add(E e) {
ensureCapacityInternal(size + 1); // Increments modCount!!
elementData[size++] = e;
return true;
}

/**
* Inserts the specified element at the specified position in this
* list. Shifts the element currently at that position (if any) and
* any subsequent elements to the right (adds one to their indices).
*
* @param index index at which the specified element is to be inserted
* @param element element to be inserted
* @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException {@inheritDoc}
*/
public void add(int index, E element) {
rangeCheckForAdd(index);

ensureCapacityInternal(size + 1); // Increments modCount!!
System.arraycopy(elementData, index, elementData, index + 1,
size - index);
elementData[index] = element;
size++;
}

/**
* Removes the element at the specified position in this list.
* Shifts any subsequent elements to the left (subtracts one from their
* indices).
*
* @param index the index of the element to be removed
* @return the element that was removed from the list
* @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException {@inheritDoc}
*/
public E remove(int index) {
rangeCheck(index);

modCount++;
E oldValue = elementData(index);

int numMoved = size - index - 1;
if (numMoved > 0)
System.arraycopy(elementData, index+1, elementData, index,
numMoved);
elementData[--size] = null; // clear to let GC do its work

return oldValue;
}

/**
* Removes the first occurrence of the specified element from this list,
* if it is present. If the list does not contain the element, it is
* unchanged. More formally, removes the element with the lowest index
* <tt>i</tt> such that
* <tt>(o==null&nbsp;?&nbsp;get(i)==null&nbsp;:&nbsp;o.equals(get(i)))</tt>
* (if such an element exists). Returns <tt>true</tt> if this list
* contained the specified element (or equivalently, if this list
* changed as a result of the call).
*
* @param o element to be removed from this list, if present
* @return <tt>true</tt> if this list contained the specified element
*/
public boolean remove(Object o) {
if (o == null) {
for (int index = 0; index < size; index++)
if (elementData[index] == null) {
fastRemove(index);
return true;
}
} else {
for (int index = 0; index < size; index++)
if (o.equals(elementData[index])) {
fastRemove(index);
return true;
}
}
return false;
}

/*
* Private remove method that skips bounds checking and does not
* return the value removed.
*/
private void fastRemove(int index) {
modCount++;
int numMoved = size - index - 1;
if (numMoved > 0)
System.arraycopy(elementData, index+1, elementData, index,
numMoved);
elementData[--size] = null; // clear to let GC do its work
}

/**
* Removes all of the elements from this list. The list will
* be empty after this call returns.
*/
public void clear() {
modCount++;

// clear to let GC do its work
for (int i = 0; i < size; i++)
elementData[i] = null;

size = 0;
}

/**
* Appends all of the elements in the specified collection to the end of
* this list, in the order that they are returned by the
* specified collection's Iterator. The behavior of this operation is
* undefined if the specified collection is modified while the operation
* is in progress. (This implies that the behavior of this call is
* undefined if the specified collection is this list, and this
* list is nonempty.)
*
* @param c collection containing elements to be added to this list
* @return <tt>true</tt> if this list changed as a result of the call
* @throws NullPointerException if the specified collection is null
*/
public boolean addAll(Collection<? extends E> c) {
Object[] a = c.toArray();
int numNew = a.length;
ensureCapacityInternal(size + numNew); // Increments modCount
System.arraycopy(a, 0, elementData, size, numNew);
size += numNew;
return numNew != 0;
}

/**
* Inserts all of the elements in the specified collection into this
* list, starting at the specified position. Shifts the element
* currently at that position (if any) and any subsequent elements to
* the right (increases their indices). The new elements will appear
* in the list in the order that they are returned by the
* specified collection's iterator.
*
* @param index index at which to insert the first element from the
* specified collection
* @param c collection containing elements to be added to this list
* @return <tt>true</tt> if this list changed as a result of the call
* @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException {@inheritDoc}
* @throws NullPointerException if the specified collection is null
*/
public boolean addAll(int index, Collection<? extends E> c) {
rangeCheckForAdd(index);

Object[] a = c.toArray();
int numNew = a.length;
ensureCapacityInternal(size + numNew); // Increments modCount

int numMoved = size - index;
if (numMoved > 0)
System.arraycopy(elementData, index, elementData, index + numNew,
numMoved);

System.arraycopy(a, 0, elementData, index, numNew);
size += numNew;
return numNew != 0;
}

/**
* Removes from this list all of the elements whose index is between
* {@code fromIndex}, inclusive, and {@code toIndex}, exclusive.
* Shifts any succeeding elements to the left (reduces their index).
* This call shortens the list by {@code (toIndex - fromIndex)} elements.
* (If {@code toIndex==fromIndex}, this operation has no effect.)
*
* @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException if {@code fromIndex} or
* {@code toIndex} is out of range
* ({@code fromIndex < 0 ||
* fromIndex >= size() ||
* toIndex > size() ||
* toIndex < fromIndex})
*/
protected void removeRange(int fromIndex, int toIndex) {
modCount++;
int numMoved = size - toIndex;
System.arraycopy(elementData, toIndex, elementData, fromIndex,
numMoved);

// clear to let GC do its work
int newSize = size - (toIndex-fromIndex);
for (int i = newSize; i < size; i++) {
elementData[i] = null;
}
size = newSize;
}

/**
* Checks if the given index is in range. If not, throws an appropriate
* runtime exception. This method does *not* check if the index is
* negative: It is always used immediately prior to an array access,
* which throws an ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException if index is negative.
*/
private void rangeCheck(int index) {
if (index >= size)
throw new IndexOutOfBoundsException(outOfBoundsMsg(index));
}

/**
* A version of rangeCheck used by add and addAll.
*/
private void rangeCheckForAdd(int index) {
if (index > size || index < 0)
throw new IndexOutOfBoundsException(outOfBoundsMsg(index));
}

/**
* Constructs an IndexOutOfBoundsException detail message.
* Of the many possible refactorings of the error handling code,
* this "outlining" performs best with both server and client VMs.
*/
private String outOfBoundsMsg(int index) {
return "Index: "+index+", Size: "+size;
}

/**
* Removes from this list all of its elements that are contained in the
* specified collection.
*
* @param c collection containing elements to be removed from this list
* @return {@code true} if this list changed as a result of the call
* @throws ClassCastException if the class of an element of this list
* is incompatible with the specified collection
* (<a href="Collection.html#optional-restrictions">optional</a>)
* @throws NullPointerException if this list contains a null element and the
* specified collection does not permit null elements
* (<a href="Collection.html#optional-restrictions">optional</a>),
* or if the specified collection is null
* @see Collection#contains(Object)
*/
public boolean removeAll(Collection<?> c) {
Objects.requireNonNull(c);
return batchRemove(c, false);
}

/**
* Retains only the elements in this list that are contained in the
* specified collection. In other words, removes from this list all
* of its elements that are not contained in the specified collection.
*
* @param c collection containing elements to be retained in this list
* @return {@code true} if this list changed as a result of the call
* @throws ClassCastException if the class of an element of this list
* is incompatible with the specified collection
* (<a href="Collection.html#optional-restrictions">optional</a>)
* @throws NullPointerException if this list contains a null element and the
* specified collection does not permit null elements
* (<a href="Collection.html#optional-restrictions">optional</a>),
* or if the specified collection is null
* @see Collection#contains(Object)
*/
public boolean retainAll(Collection<?> c) {
Objects.requireNonNull(c);
return batchRemove(c, true);
}

private boolean batchRemove(Collection<?> c, boolean complement) {
final Object[] elementData = this.elementData;
int r = 0, w = 0;
boolean modified = false;
try {
for (; r < size; r++)
if (c.contains(elementData[r]) == complement)
elementData[w++] = elementData[r];
} finally {
// Preserve behavioral compatibility with AbstractCollection,
// even if c.contains() throws.
if (r != size) {
System.arraycopy(elementData, r,
elementData, w,
size - r);
w += size - r;
}
if (w != size) {
// clear to let GC do its work
for (int i = w; i < size; i++)
elementData[i] = null;
modCount += size - w;
size = w;
modified = true;
}
}
return modified;
}

/**
* Save the state of the <tt>ArrayList</tt> instance to a stream (that
* is, serialize it).
*
* @serialData The length of the array backing the <tt>ArrayList</tt>
* instance is emitted (int), followed by all of its elements
* (each an <tt>Object</tt>) in the proper order.
*/
private void writeObject(java.io.ObjectOutputStream s)
throws java.io.IOException{
// Write out element count, and any hidden stuff
int expectedModCount = modCount;
s.defaultWriteObject();

// Write out size as capacity for behavioural compatibility with clone()
s.writeInt(size);

// Write out all elements in the proper order.
for (int i=0; i<size; i++) {
s.writeObject(elementData[i]);
}

if (modCount != expectedModCount) {
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}
}

/**
* Reconstitute the <tt>ArrayList</tt> instance from a stream (that is,
* deserialize it).
*/
private void readObject(java.io.ObjectInputStream s)
throws java.io.IOException, ClassNotFoundException {
elementData = EMPTY_ELEMENTDATA;

// Read in size, and any hidden stuff
s.defaultReadObject();

// Read in capacity
s.readInt(); // ignored

if (size > 0) {
// be like clone(), allocate array based upon size not capacity
ensureCapacityInternal(size);

Object[] a = elementData;
// Read in all elements in the proper order.
for (int i=0; i<size; i++) {
a[i] = s.readObject();
}
}
}

/**
* Returns a list iterator over the elements in this list (in proper
* sequence), starting at the specified position in the list.
* The specified index indicates the first element that would be
* returned by an initial call to {@link ListIterator#next next}.
* An initial call to {@link ListIterator#previous previous} would
* return the element with the specified index minus one.
*
* <p>The returned list iterator is <a href="#fail-fast"><i>fail-fast</i></a>.
*
* @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException {@inheritDoc}
*/
public ListIterator<E> listIterator(int index) {
if (index < 0 || index > size)
throw new IndexOutOfBoundsException("Index: "+index);
return new ListItr(index);
}

/**
* Returns a list iterator over the elements in this list (in proper
* sequence).
*
* <p>The returned list iterator is <a href="#fail-fast"><i>fail-fast</i></a>.
*
* @see #listIterator(int)
*/
public ListIterator<E> listIterator() {
return new ListItr(0);
}

/**
* Returns an iterator over the elements in this list in proper sequence.
*
* <p>The returned iterator is <a href="#fail-fast"><i>fail-fast</i></a>.
*
* @return an iterator over the elements in this list in proper sequence
*/
public Iterator<E> iterator() {
return new Itr();
}

/**
* An optimized version of AbstractList.Itr
*/
private class Itr implements Iterator<E> {
int cursor; // index of next element to return
int lastRet = -1; // index of last element returned; -1 if no such
int expectedModCount = modCount;

public boolean hasNext() {
return cursor != size;
}

@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
public E next() {
checkForComodification();
int i = cursor;
if (i >= size)
throw new NoSuchElementException();
Object[] elementData = ArrayList.this.elementData;
if (i >= elementData.length)
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
cursor = i + 1;
return (E) elementData[lastRet = i];
}

public void remove() {
if (lastRet < 0)
throw new IllegalStateException();
checkForComodification();

try {
ArrayList.this.remove(lastRet);
cursor = lastRet;
lastRet = -1;
expectedModCount = modCount;
} catch (IndexOutOfBoundsException ex) {
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}
}

@Override
@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
public void forEachRemaining(Consumer<? super E> consumer) {
Objects.requireNonNull(consumer);
final int size = ArrayList.this.size;
int i = cursor;
if (i >= size) {
return;
}
final Object[] elementData = ArrayList.this.elementData;
if (i >= elementData.length) {
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}
while (i != size && modCount == expectedModCount) {
consumer.accept((E) elementData[i++]);
}
// update once at end of iteration to reduce heap write traffic
cursor = i;
lastRet = i - 1;
checkForComodification();
}

final void checkForComodification() {
if (modCount != expectedModCount)
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}
}

/**
* An optimized version of AbstractList.ListItr
*/
private class ListItr extends Itr implements ListIterator<E> {
ListItr(int index) {
super();
cursor = index;
}

public boolean hasPrevious() {
return cursor != 0;
}

public int nextIndex() {
return cursor;
}

public int previousIndex() {
return cursor - 1;
}

@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
public E previous() {
checkForComodification();
int i = cursor - 1;
if (i < 0)
throw new NoSuchElementException();
Object[] elementData = ArrayList.this.elementData;
if (i >= elementData.length)
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
cursor = i;
return (E) elementData[lastRet = i];
}

public void set(E e) {
if (lastRet < 0)
throw new IllegalStateException();
checkForComodification();

try {
ArrayList.this.set(lastRet, e);
} catch (IndexOutOfBoundsException ex) {
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}
}

public void add(E e) {
checkForComodification();

try {
int i = cursor;
ArrayList.this.add(i, e);
cursor = i + 1;
lastRet = -1;
expectedModCount = modCount;
} catch (IndexOutOfBoundsException ex) {
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}
}
}

/**
* Returns a view of the portion of this list between the specified
* {@code fromIndex}, inclusive, and {@code toIndex}, exclusive. (If
* {@code fromIndex} and {@code toIndex} are equal, the returned list is
* empty.) The returned list is backed by this list, so non-structural
* changes in the returned list are reflected in this list, and vice-versa.
* The returned list supports all of the optional list operations.
*
* <p>This method eliminates the need for explicit range operations (of
* the sort that commonly exist for arrays). Any operation that expects
* a list can be used as a range operation by passing a subList view
* instead of a whole list. For example, the following idiom
* removes a range of elements from a list:
* <pre>
* list.subList(from, to).clear();
* </pre>
* Similar idioms may be constructed for {@link #indexOf(Object)} and
* {@link #lastIndexOf(Object)}, and all of the algorithms in the
* {@link Collections} class can be applied to a subList.
*
* <p>The semantics of the list returned by this method become undefined if
* the backing list (i.e., this list) is <i>structurally modified</i> in
* any way other than via the returned list. (Structural modifications are
* those that change the size of this list, or otherwise perturb it in such
* a fashion that iterations in progress may yield incorrect results.)
*
* @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException {@inheritDoc}
* @throws IllegalArgumentException {@inheritDoc}
*/
public List<E> subList(int fromIndex, int toIndex) {
subListRangeCheck(fromIndex, toIndex, size);
return new SubList(this, 0, fromIndex, toIndex);
}

static void subListRangeCheck(int fromIndex, int toIndex, int size) {
if (fromIndex < 0)
throw new IndexOutOfBoundsException("fromIndex = " + fromIndex);
if (toIndex > size)
throw new IndexOutOfBoundsException("toIndex = " + toIndex);
if (fromIndex > toIndex)
throw new IllegalArgumentException("fromIndex(" + fromIndex +
") > toIndex(" + toIndex + ")");
}

private class SubList extends AbstractList<E> implements RandomAccess {
private final AbstractList<E> parent;
private final int parentOffset;
private final int offset;
int size;

SubList(AbstractList<E> parent,
int offset, int fromIndex, int toIndex) {
this.parent = parent;
this.parentOffset = fromIndex;
this.offset = offset + fromIndex;
this.size = toIndex - fromIndex;
this.modCount = ArrayList.this.modCount;
}

public E set(int index, E e) {
rangeCheck(index);
checkForComodification();
E oldValue = ArrayList.this.elementData(offset + index);
ArrayList.this.elementData[offset + index] = e;
return oldValue;
}

public E get(int index) {
rangeCheck(index);
checkForComodification();
return ArrayList.this.elementData(offset + index);
}

public int size() {
checkForComodification();
return this.size;
}

public void add(int index, E e) {
rangeCheckForAdd(index);
checkForComodification();
parent.add(parentOffset + index, e);
this.modCount = parent.modCount;
this.size++;
}

public E remove(int index) {
rangeCheck(index);
checkForComodification();
E result = parent.remove(parentOffset + index);
this.modCount = parent.modCount;
this.size--;
return result;
}

protected void removeRange(int fromIndex, int toIndex) {
checkForComodification();
parent.removeRange(parentOffset + fromIndex,
parentOffset + toIndex);
this.modCount = parent.modCount;
this.size -= toIndex - fromIndex;
}

public boolean addAll(Collection<? extends E> c) {
return addAll(this.size, c);
}

public boolean addAll(int index, Collection<? extends E> c) {
rangeCheckForAdd(index);
int cSize = c.size();
if (cSize==0)
return false;

checkForComodification();
parent.addAll(parentOffset + index, c);
this.modCount = parent.modCount;
this.size += cSize;
return true;
}

public Iterator<E> iterator() {
return listIterator();
}

public ListIterator<E> listIterator(final int index) {
checkForComodification();
rangeCheckForAdd(index);
final int offset = this.offset;

return new ListIterator<E>() {
int cursor = index;
int lastRet = -1;
int expectedModCount = ArrayList.this.modCount;

public boolean hasNext() {
return cursor != SubList.this.size;
}

@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
public E next() {
checkForComodification();
int i = cursor;
if (i >= SubList.this.size)
throw new NoSuchElementException();
Object[] elementData = ArrayList.this.elementData;
if (offset + i >= elementData.length)
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
cursor = i + 1;
return (E) elementData[offset + (lastRet = i)];
}

public boolean hasPrevious() {
return cursor != 0;
}

@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
public E previous() {
checkForComodification();
int i = cursor - 1;
if (i < 0)
throw new NoSuchElementException();
Object[] elementData = ArrayList.this.elementData;
if (offset + i >= elementData.length)
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
cursor = i;
return (E) elementData[offset + (lastRet = i)];
}

@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
public void forEachRemaining(Consumer<? super E> consumer) {
Objects.requireNonNull(consumer);
final int size = SubList.this.size;
int i = cursor;
if (i >= size) {
return;
}
final Object[] elementData = ArrayList.this.elementData;
if (offset + i >= elementData.length) {
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}
while (i != size && modCount == expectedModCount) {
consumer.accept((E) elementData[offset + (i++)]);
}
// update once at end of iteration to reduce heap write traffic
lastRet = cursor = i;
checkForComodification();
}

public int nextIndex() {
return cursor;
}

public int previousIndex() {
return cursor - 1;
}

public void remove() {
if (lastRet < 0)
throw new IllegalStateException();
checkForComodification();

try {
SubList.this.remove(lastRet);
cursor = lastRet;
lastRet = -1;
expectedModCount = ArrayList.this.modCount;
} catch (IndexOutOfBoundsException ex) {
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}
}

public void set(E e) {
if (lastRet < 0)
throw new IllegalStateException();
checkForComodification();

try {
ArrayList.this.set(offset + lastRet, e);
} catch (IndexOutOfBoundsException ex) {
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}
}

public void add(E e) {
checkForComodification();

try {
int i = cursor;
SubList.this.add(i, e);
cursor = i + 1;
lastRet = -1;
expectedModCount = ArrayList.this.modCount;
} catch (IndexOutOfBoundsException ex) {
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}
}

final void checkForComodification() {
if (expectedModCount != ArrayList.this.modCount)
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}
};
}

public List<E> subList(int fromIndex, int toIndex) {
subListRangeCheck(fromIndex, toIndex, size);
return new SubList(this, offset, fromIndex, toIndex);
}

private void rangeCheck(int index) {
if (index < 0 || index >= this.size)
throw new IndexOutOfBoundsException(outOfBoundsMsg(index));
}

private void rangeCheckForAdd(int index) {
if (index < 0 || index > this.size)
throw new IndexOutOfBoundsException(outOfBoundsMsg(index));
}

private String outOfBoundsMsg(int index) {
return "Index: "+index+", Size: "+this.size;
}

private void checkForComodification() {
if (ArrayList.this.modCount != this.modCount)
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}

public Spliterator<E> spliterator() {
checkForComodification();
return new ArrayListSpliterator<E>(ArrayList.this, offset,
offset + this.size, this.modCount);
}
}

@Override
public void forEach(Consumer<? super E> action) {
Objects.requireNonNull(action);
final int expectedModCount = modCount;
@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
final E[] elementData = (E[]) this.elementData;
final int size = this.size;
for (int i=0; modCount == expectedModCount && i < size; i++) {
action.accept(elementData[i]);
}
if (modCount != expectedModCount) {
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}
}

/**
* Creates a <em><a href="Spliterator.html#binding">late-binding</a></em>
* and <em>fail-fast</em> {@link Spliterator} over the elements in this
* list.
*
* <p>The {@code Spliterator} reports {@link Spliterator#SIZED},
* {@link Spliterator#SUBSIZED}, and {@link Spliterator#ORDERED}.
* Overriding implementations should document the reporting of additional
* characteristic values.
*
* @return a {@code Spliterator} over the elements in this list
* @since 1.8
*/
@Override
public Spliterator<E> spliterator() {
return new ArrayListSpliterator<>(this, 0, -1, 0);
}

/** Index-based split-by-two, lazily initialized Spliterator */
static final class ArrayListSpliterator<E> implements Spliterator<E> {

/*
* If ArrayLists were immutable, or structurally immutable (no
* adds, removes, etc), we could implement their spliterators
* with Arrays.spliterator. Instead we detect as much
* interference during traversal as practical without
* sacrificing much performance. We rely primarily on
* modCounts. These are not guaranteed to detect concurrency
* violations, and are sometimes overly conservative about
* within-thread interference, but detect enough problems to
* be worthwhile in practice. To carry this out, we (1) lazily
* initialize fence and expectedModCount until the latest
* point that we need to commit to the state we are checking
* against; thus improving precision. (This doesn't apply to
* SubLists, that create spliterators with current non-lazy
* values). (2) We perform only a single
* ConcurrentModificationException check at the end of forEach
* (the most performance-sensitive method). When using forEach
* (as opposed to iterators), we can normally only detect
* interference after actions, not before. Further
* CME-triggering checks apply to all other possible
* violations of assumptions for example null or too-small
* elementData array given its size(), that could only have
* occurred due to interference. This allows the inner loop
* of forEach to run without any further checks, and
* simplifies lambda-resolution. While this does entail a
* number of checks, note that in the common case of
* list.stream().forEach(a), no checks or other computation
* occur anywhere other than inside forEach itself. The other
* less-often-used methods cannot take advantage of most of
* these streamlinings.
*/

private final ArrayList<E> list;
private int index; // current index, modified on advance/split
private int fence; // -1 until used; then one past last index
private int expectedModCount; // initialized when fence set

/** Create new spliterator covering the given range */
ArrayListSpliterator(ArrayList<E> list, int origin, int fence,
int expectedModCount) {
this.list = list; // OK if null unless traversed
this.index = origin;
this.fence = fence;
this.expectedModCount = expectedModCount;
}

private int getFence() { // initialize fence to size on first use
int hi; // (a specialized variant appears in method forEach)
ArrayList<E> lst;
if ((hi = fence) < 0) {
if ((lst = list) == null)
hi = fence = 0;
else {
expectedModCount = lst.modCount;
hi = fence = lst.size;
}
}
return hi;
}

public ArrayListSpliterator<E> trySplit() {
int hi = getFence(), lo = index, mid = (lo + hi) >>> 1;
return (lo >= mid) ? null : // divide range in half unless too small
new ArrayListSpliterator<E>(list, lo, index = mid,
expectedModCount);
}

public boolean tryAdvance(Consumer<? super E> action) {
if (action == null)
throw new NullPointerException();
int hi = getFence(), i = index;
if (i < hi) {
index = i + 1;
@SuppressWarnings("unchecked") E e = (E)list.elementData[i];
action.accept(e);
if (list.modCount != expectedModCount)
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
return true;
}
return false;
}

public void forEachRemaining(Consumer<? super E> action) {
int i, hi, mc; // hoist accesses and checks from loop
ArrayList<E> lst; Object[] a;
if (action == null)
throw new NullPointerException();
if ((lst = list) != null && (a = lst.elementData) != null) {
if ((hi = fence) < 0) {
mc = lst.modCount;
hi = lst.size;
}
else
mc = expectedModCount;
if ((i = index) >= 0 && (index = hi) <= a.length) {
for (; i < hi; ++i) {
@SuppressWarnings("unchecked") E e = (E) a[i];
action.accept(e);
}
if (lst.modCount == mc)
return;
}
}
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}

public long estimateSize() {
return (long) (getFence() - index);
}

public int characteristics() {
return Spliterator.ORDERED | Spliterator.SIZED | Spliterator.SUBSIZED;
}
}

@Override
public boolean removeIf(Predicate<? super E> filter) {
Objects.requireNonNull(filter);
// figure out which elements are to be removed
// any exception thrown from the filter predicate at this stage
// will leave the collection unmodified
int removeCount = 0;
final BitSet removeSet = new BitSet(size);
final int expectedModCount = modCount;
final int size = this.size;
for (int i=0; modCount == expectedModCount && i < size; i++) {
@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
final E element = (E) elementData[i];
if (filter.test(element)) {
removeSet.set(i);
removeCount++;
}
}
if (modCount != expectedModCount) {
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}

// shift surviving elements left over the spaces left by removed elements
final boolean anyToRemove = removeCount > 0;
if (anyToRemove) {
final int newSize = size - removeCount;
for (int i=0, j=0; (i < size) && (j < newSize); i++, j++) {
i = removeSet.nextClearBit(i);
elementData[j] = elementData[i];
}
for (int k=newSize; k < size; k++) {
elementData[k] = null; // Let gc do its work
}
this.size = newSize;
if (modCount != expectedModCount) {
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}
modCount++;
}

return anyToRemove;
}

@Override
@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
public void replaceAll(UnaryOperator<E> operator) {
Objects.requireNonNull(operator);
final int expectedModCount = modCount;
final int size = this.size;
for (int i=0; modCount == expectedModCount && i < size; i++) {
elementData[i] = operator.apply((E) elementData[i]);
}
if (modCount != expectedModCount) {
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}
modCount++;
}

@Override
@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
public void sort(Comparator<? super E> c) {
final int expectedModCount = modCount;
Arrays.sort((E[]) elementData, 0, size, c);
if (modCount != expectedModCount) {
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}
modCount++;
}
}